Save And Conserve Water: Don't Flush Our Planet's Most Valuable Resource Let?s Find Out!
There are three things (oxygen, water and food) without which we cannot live on the earth. But the most precious thing is oxygen, then water and food because we cannot live without oxygen, even for a second. Clean water is also a most important thing as we need it in our daily routine activities and especially to drink.
Already the percentage of clean water was less but due to the industrial activities our clean water under the ground is getting dirty and polluted. Because of the lack of fresh mineral water everywhere, it has started selling on the local shops for many years. And, people are ready to buy it worth 30 to 35 Rs because they know that simple tap water may not be clean especially at public places.
Increasing rate of people?s carelessness (regarding water saving and safety) and population, it is sure that our future generations must suffer the shortage of clean water. Very less percentage of earth?s water is suitable for drinking and many people (at the place of water shortage) survive on very less water per day.
Percentage of Clean Water
Three-fourth of the earth is covered by water from which 97% water is ocean water means salt water and completely unfit for our consumption. Left percentage (about 2.7 percent) is fresh drinking water however around 70 percent of this is available as ice sheets and glaciers in Antarctica. So, we only have one percent of fresh water which is fit for human use.
We need to practice water conservation on urgent basis in order to make the presence of this precious resource in our life. We also need to stop contaminating the drinking water resources through direct passage of sewage, toxic chemicals and other wastes into it. Increasing rate of population, deforestation and rapid urbanization is increasing the need of clean water and leading to the water pollution and scarcity.
Sources Making Clean Water Dirty
The sources which are polluting the underground water are land runoff, drainage, seepage, sewage, atmospheric deposition, precipitation, industrial waste, etc. Such wastes get deposited into lakes, rivers, coastal waters, wetlands, etc and meet to the large water bodies and ground water too. Other water spoiling sources are use of excess fertilizers, insecticides, herbicides, detergents, soaps, etc from agricultural lands and residential areas. Acid drainage from abandoned mines and industries involved in making oil, grease and toxic chemicals are also involved in making water dirty and polluted. Such nonpoint sources are the leading cause of water quality problems.
Wastewater treatment is a process used to remove contaminants from wastewater or sewage and convert it into an effluent that can be returned to the water cycle with minimum impact on the environment, or directly reused. The latter is called water reclamation because treated wastewater can then be used for other purposes. The treatment process takes place in a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), often referred to as a Water Resource Recovery Facility (WRRF) or a Sewage Treatment Plant (STP). Pollutants in municipal wastewater (households and small industries) are removed or broken down.
The treatment of wastewater is part of the overarching field of sanitation. Sanitation also includes the management of human waste and solid waste as well as stormwater (drainage) management. By-products from wastewater treatment plants, such as screenings, grit and sewage sludge may also be treated in a wastewater treatment plant.
Process Phase Separation
Phase separation transfers impurities into a non-aqueous phase. Phase separation may occur at intermediate points in a treatment sequence to remove solids generated during oxidation or polishing. Grease and oil may be recovered for fuel or saponification. Solids often require dewatering of sludge in a wastewater treatment plant. Disposal options for dried solids vary with the type and concentration of impurities removed from water.
Production of waste brine, however, may discourage wastewater treatment removing dissolved inorganic solids from water by methods like ion exchange, reverse osmosis, and distillation.
Solids like stones, grit and sand may be removed from wastewater by gravity when density differences are sufficient to overcome dispersion by turbulence. Gravity separation of solids is the primary treatment of sewage, where the unit process is called "primary settling tanks" or "primary sedimentation tanks". It is also widely used for the treatment of other wastewaters. Solids that are heavier than water will accumulate at the bottom of quiescent settling basins. More complex clarifiers also have skimmers to simultaneously remove floating grease like soap scum and solids like feathers or wood chips. Containers like the API oil-water separator are specifically designed to separate non-polar liquids.
Suspended solids and colloidal suspensions of fine solids may, generally following some form of coagulation, be removed by filtration through fine physical barriers distinguished from coarser screens or sieves by the ability to remove particles smaller than the openings through which the water passes. Other types of water filters remove impurities by chemical or biological processes described below.
Oxidation reduces the biochemical oxygen demand of wastewater, and may reduce the toxicity of some impurities. Secondary treatment converts organic compounds into carbon dioxide, water, and biosolids. Chemical oxidation is widely used for disinfection.
Secondary treatment by biochemical oxidation of dissolved and colloidal organic compounds is widely used in sewage treatment and is applicable to some agricultural and industrial wastewaters. Biological oxidation will preferentially remove organic compounds useful as a food supply for the treatment ecosystem. Concentration of some less digestible compounds may be reduced by co-metabolism. Removal efficiency is limited by the minimum food concentration required to sustain the treatment ecosystem.
Chemical (including Electrochemical) oxidation is used to remove some persistent organic pollutants and concentrations remaining after biochemical oxidation. Disinfection by chemical oxidation kills bacteria and microbial pathogens by adding ozone, chlorine or hypochlorite to wastewater.
Polishing refers to treatments made following the above methods. These treatments may also be used independently for some industrial wastewater. Chemical reduction or pH adjustment minimizes chemical reactivity of wastewater following chemical oxidation. Carbon filtering removes remaining contaminants and impurities by chemical absorption onto activated carbon. Filtration through sand (calcium carbonate) or fabric filters is the most common method used in municipal wastewater treatment.
Simple Ways To Save Water:
There are various simple ways which we can use on a daily basis and save gallons of water daily. Following are save water techniques which we must use to save water at home and other places:
- We should use shower heads with low-flow (also called energy-efficient shower heads), low-flush toilets and composting toilets (instead of conventional western toilets as they use large volumes of water) or dual flush toilets (it uses very less water than others).
- Keep the tap close while doing hand wash, toothbrush, face wash, washing dishes, etc.
- Collect rainwater during the rainy season to use in toilet flush, watering plants, sprinkle in the garden, etc. Using raw water like sea water or non-purified water in toilet is also good.
- We should promote rainwater harvesting, using high-efficiency clothes washers, weather-based irrigation controllers, garden hose nozzles, low flow taps in wash basins, swimming pool covers, automatic faucet, etc for water conservation.
- Water saving techniques should also be given priority in the commercial areas as it is a big area where gallons of water can be saved on a daily basis.
- Agriculture field is also a vast area where we can save more water on a daily basis if we follow water saving techniques. We can use overhead irrigation for crop irrigation (using center-pivot or lateral-moving sprinklers), minimize evaporation, runoff or subsurface drainage, etc.