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1. Faulty Planning of Transport System:
The development of the transport system is unbalanced. There is heavy pressure on rail and road transport in certain cities and regions.
For a balanced development of region, alternative routes should be developed e.g. Metro in Delhi has decreased the pressure on road transport.
In metropolitans, there is a lack of fast and adequate public transport system. This deficiency leads to explosion of personal transport (own vehicles) which puts extra pressure on roads and causes jams and accidents. On the other hand, hilly and remote areas lack all-weather transport facilities.
2. Lack of Rail Road Co-ordination:
Rail and Road transport systems are the main means of transportation in a country. These two should work in coordination. Generally it is not so e.g. In 1951, the share of road transport in freight traffic and passenger traffic was 11% and 26% respectively. But in the present day, its share is 60% and 80% respectively.
This growth is undesirable from an economic and environmental point of view. In a well planned and co-ordinated way, the railways should be engaged for bulky goods and long distances while road transport should be engaged in small goods and short distances.
3. Worn out and Obsolete Assets:
The main problem with our transport system is its worn out and obsolete assets. In all modes of transport there is an old and worn-out infrastructure. In railways 25% of the route length and 75 to 80% of machinery in railway workshops have to be replaced. Similarly 80% and above of buses plied by State Road Transport Corporations are out-dated and out modeled. These need immediate replacement. They are main cause of accidents and environmental pollution. In air transport nearly one-third of the total fleet requires immediate replacement.
4. What Are The Main Road Transportation Problems In India?
The road transportation system of our country is facing real challenges. The transport companies are facing various problems while transporting goods from one place to another. Be it transferring heavyweight cargo or sensitive materials, the well-maintained road condition is required to ensure the safest transportation of goods to their desired destination.
The following common steps may be helpful in solving the problems of urban transport:
Development of Additional Road Capacity:
One of the most commonly adopted methods of combatting road congestion in medium and small towns or in districts of larger centers in the construction of bypasses to divert through-traffic. This practice has been followed throughout the world including India. Mid-twentieth century planners saw the construction of additional road capacity in the form of new or improved highways as an acceptable solution to congestion within major towns and cities.
Since the pioneer transportation studies of the 1950s and 1960s were carried out in the US metropolitan areas, where the needs of an auto-dominated society were seen to be paramount, the provision of additional road capacity was accepted for several decades as the most effective solution to congestion, and urban freeways were built in large cities such as Chicago, San Francisco, and Los Angeles.
Western European transport planners incorporated many of their American counterparts? concepts into their own programs and the urban motorway featured in many of the larger schemes (Muller, 1995). However, it soon became evident that the generated traffic on these new roads rapidly reduced the initial advantages.
The construction of an urban motorway network with its access junctions requires large areas of land and the inevitable demolition of tracts of housing and commercial properties. By the 1970s planners and policy?makers came to accept that investment in new highways dedicated to the rapid movement of motor traffic was not necessarily the most effective solution to urban transport problems.
Traffic Management Measures:
Temporary and partial relief from road traffic congestion may be gained from the introduction of traffic management schemes, involving the reorganization of traffic flows and direc?tions without any major structural alterations to the existing street pattern. Among the most widely used devices are the extension of one-way systems, the phasing of traffic-light controls to take account of traffic variation, and restrictions on parking and vehicle loading on major roads.
On multi-lane highways that carry heavy volumes of commuter traffic, certain lanes can be allocated to incoming vehicles in the morning and to outgoing traffic in the afternoon, producing a tidal-flow effect. Recent experiments using information technology have been based on intelligent vehicle highway systems (IVHS), with the computerized control of traffic lights and entrances to freeways, advice to drivers of alternative routes to avoid congestion, and information on weather and general road conditions. The IVHS can be linked up with advanced vehicle control systems, making use of in-car computers to eliminate driver error and control automatic braking and steering when accidents are imminent.