Human brain is amazing in nature since it provides us with power to speak, think and solve our problems. The brain is made up of more than 100 billion nerve cells which are known as neurons. Likes wires in a computer transmit electrochemical signals, same way, the neurons gather the information and transmit the electrochemical signals.
Human brain is somewhat around three pounds and looks like something of a head of a cauliflower. It is spongy to touch. Brain co-ordinates our voluntary movements and controls all our body’s conscious experiences. Brain is the like the memory card with unlimited data that can be stored in it along and used when needed.
Brain is the memory seat. Whatever we do and learn from our daily experiences or lessons by our elders, the brain stores it in. At a crucial time, brain comes handy and revises us with all those lessons. Understand it this way: during exams, whatever was taught in class (the part you paid proper attention in) comes to your rescue. Whatever you learn is stored in your brain.
PARTS OF HUMAN BRAIN
Human brain is made up of following parts-
- Brain stem consisting of medulla, pons and midbrain. Brain stem controls reflexes and the automatic functions, visceral functions and limb movements.
- Cerebellum co-ordinates limb movements by collecting data from vestibular system indicating movement and position.
- Hypothalamus and pituitary gland control visceral functions, body temperature and the behavioral responses including sexual responses.
- Cerebrum (also known as cerebral cortex or cortex) contains cortex, corpus callosum, basal ganglia, amygdala, and hippocampus. Integrates information from sense organs, starts motor functions, controls all the emotional responses and holds memory and thought processes.
FUNCTIONS OF THE BRAIN
- Control of body temperature, blood pressure, breathing and heart rate.
- Senses relay the information of the world to the brain.
- Controls motor system i.e. physical movements involved in walking, talking, standing and sitting.
- Brain controls thinking, reasoning, experiencing emotions.
- Brain is the command center for the nervous system and controls every action that we take. Example, loving our family, playing guitar, dancing, recalling childhood memories etc.
The scientific study of brain and the nervous system is known as neuroscience or neurobiology. Brain, spinal cord and the peripheral nerves together constitute the central nervous system which is a complex information-processing and control system.
The human brain develops from three sections that are called forebrain, midbrain and hindbrain. Each one of them consists of fluid-filled cavities known as ventricles. Forebrain is further developed into cerebrum and midbrain becomes brainstem’s part and the hindbrain gives rise to brainstem and cerebellum.