Nowadays technology is growing at a very high speed. Automation of everything is the need of the hour. Human lives have become much more dependent on electronic devices. Today’s world requires special control in its different electronic gadgets. The basic aim of the saline level indicator is to ease human lives. Automation of the surrounding environment of a modern human being helps to increase work efficiency and saves time. Saline is fed when the patient’s body is dehydrated. Constant monitoring of the saline level in the bottle is required.
If the saline in the bottle is fully consumed, and the bottle is not replaced immediately then the pressure difference between the patient’s blood pressure and the empty saline bottle causes an outward rush of blood into the saline. Theses situation can pose a serious threat to the patient’s well-being. Thus the automation device is suggested in this paper in order to avoid any inconvenience that may be caused to the patient’s sin case of lacking constant monitoring by the patient’s relatives or hospital employees.
IR SENSORS: It is used to sense the voltage level changes when the saline in the bottle reaches a critical level. It will be positioned at the critical level of the saline bottle that is near the neck of the bottle. ARDUINO MICRO-CONTROLLER Arduino is a platform that is both hardware and software, providing microcontroller and IDE for programming. Arduino takes some input such as the touch of a button, a light signal, etc and produces the desired output. To get the desired output the Arduino micro-controller needs to be programmed. Here the Arduino plays the main role of setting the alarm buzzer ON. DC motor is a device that helps to convert electrical energy into mechanical energy. Once the energy is converted into mechanical energy, it can prove helpful in moving the spring forward and backward. BUZZER It is an audio signaling device. It helps to notify the nurses, caretakers, and doctors about the saline level. SPRING It is used to store mechanical energy. It helps to stop the reverse flow of blood in the tube.
System Working Generally saline bottle contains 500ml solution. In general, the critical limit is set as 70ml. As soon as the saline level reaches the critical limit, the voltage changes and the IR sensor senses it. Now the IR Transmitter passes this voltage change signal to the IR receiver. IR receiver signals the Arduino micro-controller about this condition. The Arduino micro-controller sets the alarm buzzer ON bypassing Radio Frequency to the buzzer. At the same time alert, messages are sent to the nurses and doctors via IoT.
A time limit is set for the buzzer to ring the alarm. Within this time limit if the patient is still not attended and the saline in consumed fully, then the DC Motor comes into play. Now as per the instructions are given by the Arduino micro-controller to the DC Motor, the spring will be stretched and the clamp will move forward. As the clamp moves forward the intravenous tube will be pinched will avoid the reverse flow of blood in the tube.
Harish Chekka developed a real-time patient monitoring system, which consists of saline level sensor, temperature sensor, heartbeat sensor, pressure sensor, ECG sensor, sleep/standby sensor. All these sensors are connected using ARM7 (LPC 2148) microcontroller, to send all this information a Bluetooth is being used to view the information in the mobile. For the saline level, they have used the IR sensor to detect drop radiation and they have maintained a threshold of 70ml as an alert to the nurse that saline is about to empty. Afra Tasneem describes the development in the saline monitoring system with the help of low-cost Load cells and the GSM technology which in turn helps the doctors and the nurses to view the status saline at a certain distance.
Objectives of the project :
1. To overcome drawbacks in the manually controlled saline system.
2. To provide greater accuracy than manual saline flow rate control system.
3. To send a message to the doctor /nurses’ cell phone using GSM for continuous monitoring.
4. To make the system flexible so that in case of emergency the patient himself can alter the saline flow rate.
5. To provide a digital system to indicate the number of drops flow in the catheter.
6. To inform and automatically stop the flow after emptying of the saline bottle.
7. To make the saline monitoring automatic and inform the doctor/nurse spontaneously for patient safety and easy access when required.
Scope for future work :
In future we can implement all the below works using the proposed project:
•The blood pressure monitoring system can be integrated, to give an average pulse rate and blood pressure rate to the doctor with the proposed project.
•The flow control mechanism proposed can be modified and used in other fields such as chemical mixing.
•The mechanical device used in our project can be replaced by any alternative or better mechanism can be used for pressing and the proposed work can be interfaced with keypad for better results.
The proposed saline system does not only monitor the saline status but also control the drop rate of the saline, which can be decreased as per the requirement. The system can be further improved for multiple patients with a single web application through which we can monitor the saline status of multiple patients and control their drop rates remotely.
Research Institutes Which Are Currently Working For Improving The Salines In Hospitals:
Knowledge Institute of Technology, Tamilnadu, India.
K J Somaiya Institute of Management Studies and Research (SIMSR)