The Constitution of India is the supreme law of all in India. It frames fundamental political principles, procedures, practices, rights, powers, and duties of the government. It imparts supremacy of Constitution and not parliamentary supremacy, as the Parliament does not create it but, by a constituent assembly, and adopted by its people, with a declaration in its preamble. Parliament cannot override it.
It establishes the main organs i.e., executive, judiciary, and legislature, defining their powers, demarcating their responsibilities, and regulating the interrelationship. It, among other things, lays down the basic structure of governance and the relationship between the government and people. The rights and duties of citizens are also spelled out in it. The Constitution now applies to the state of Jammu and Kashmir after eradication of Section 370. It is the mother of all the other laws of the country. Every law enacted by the Government must be in conformity with the Constitution.
The constitution has a preamble and 448 articles, which are grouped into 25 parts. With 12 schedules and five appendices, it has been amended 103 times; the latest amendment became effective on 14 January 2019.
It was signed by the framers of the constitution, most of whom are regarded as the founders of the Republic of India. The original of the book of Constitution is kept in a particular helium-filled case in the Library of the Parliament of India
The constitution of India was adopted on the 26th of November, in the year 1949. However, it came to effect on the 26th of January, 1950. Since then 26th of January is celebrated as the Republic Day Of India. The Constitution Assembly adopted it. Dr. B. R. Ambedkar, known as the chairman of the Drafting Committee, is widely considered to be the architect of the Constitution of India. After, the adoption of the constitution, The Union of India became the contemporary and modern Republic of India
Salient Features of Constitution of India
- Written Constitution
- Longest Constitution
- Partly Rigid and Partly Flexible
- Socialist state
- Secular state
- Welfare state
- Sovereign, Democratic, Republic
- Single Citizenship
- Fundamental Rights and Duties
- Emergencies Provisions
- Parliamentary Democracy
The Constitution vests many fundamental rights in citizens. Those are (i) Right to Equality, (ii) Right to Freedom, (iii) Right against Exploitation, (iv) Right to Freedom of Religion, v) Cultural and Educational Rights, vi) Right to Constitutional Remedies. These rights are justiciable, and an individual can move the Supreme Court or the High Courts if there is an encroachment on any of these rights. However, the Fundamental Rights in India are not absolute. Reasonable restrictions can be imposed. By the 42nd Amendment in 1976, fundaments duties were added in the Constitution to remind people that while they are enjoying their right as citizens, they should also perform their duties for rights and duties are correlative.
Institutions set up under Constitution
There are many autonomous institutions set up under the Constitution which perform a crucial role in functioning, such as, Election Commission responsible for holding free and fair elections, Public Service Commission accountable for selection to primary government services and an Auditor General for an independent audit of accounts of the government and its agencies.